Mediterranean shrubland plants are predominantly evergreens, as leaf fall is unnecessary in areas where winters are mild. These plants must above all defend themselves against drought and wind, so they have adapted to the climatic conditions of the areas in which they live.
- Their low height allows them to withstand strong winds.
- Reduced leaf blades covered by impermeable and waxy cuticles (holm oak) or by a hairy coating (rockrose) make it possible to reduce transpiration and combat drought.
- Some leaves have been transformed into spines to resist animal bites.
- Mediterranean plants also develop extensive and deep roots that allow them to absorb water from the soil even in conditions of strong aridity.
- The tallest plants that can be found in the Mediterranean scrub are holm oak, maritime pine, cork oak, and holly oak